WHAT ARE THE RISK FACTORS?

There are many risk factors for heart disease, some are conditions or habits that make a person more likely to develop a disease. Some of these risk factors can be controlled and some can’t.

Risk Factors that cannot be controlled are:

age

The incidence of heart disease increases with age.

gender

The incidence of heart disease is about 3-4 times higher in men than in women in the middle decades of life and approximately twice as high in the elderly.1

family-history

Presence of premature coronary disease in first degree male relatives with age < 55 years or female relatives < 65 years.2

The more controllable factors are:

smoking

The incidence and mortality of heart disease is 2-3 times as high in cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers.3

obesity

In Asians, a waist circumference of > 90 cm in men and > 80 cm in women has been found to be associated with increased heart disease risk.4

exercise

Science has shown that physical inactivity is associated with increased mortality and heart disease.5

Source:
  • 1 Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics–2006 Update
  • 2 Relation of familial patterns of coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes to sub clinical atherosclerosis: The Multi-Ethnic study of Atherosclerosis, Dec 2008
  • 3 The association between tobacco smoking and coronary heart disease, June 2015
  • 4 Waist circumference cutoff points and action levels for Asian Indians for identification of abdominal obesity, Jan 2006
  • 5 Physical Activity, Health Benefits and Mortality Risk, Oct 2012